MANCHESTER, England (AP): Ask people to describe Swansea’s style of play and most would detail the free-flowing, possession-based approach that has been the hallmark of teams under managers such as Roberto Martinez, Brendan Rodgers and Michael Laudrup over the last decade. Some have even dubbed them “Swanselona” over the years, a reference to Swansea’s passable imitation of Barcelona’s preferred style. Bob Bradley has to decide if it’s time for a change. The American coach was hired by Swansea last week, taking charge of a team that has lost five of its last six games in the English Premier League (EPL) under the fired Francesco Guidolin and languishes in 17th place. Bradley arrives with a reputation for preferring a more pragmatic, direct style of football, which would be at odds with what Swansea typically produces. A shift in approach might just be what the team needs to stay up this season. The 58-year-old Bradley said in his presentation press conference that he likes “good, passing football” and that Swansea has been a team that is “fun to watch,” but it’s not helping at the moment. Taking the game to Manchester City and Liverpool in the last two rounds, the Swans were brave but ultimately lost both matches. They haven’t kept a clean sheet since the opening round. Next up is a trip to third-place Arsenal tomorrow, something of a daunting introduction to the Premier League for Bradley. Tightening up and being harder to beat might be the name of the game for the new coach. “Whenever there’s a change at any club, it’s a fresh start for everybody,” Bradley said yesterday. “You can see that on certain faces, that’s clear. Even at a time in a season when it’s been difficult, when there’s been managerial change, you see enthusiasm and a certain amount of excitement. “That doesn’t automatically mean because you’ve changed some things, everything’s going to come together right away. But, it’s a start.” Arsenal have won their last five games in all competitions and can be a devastating force when the team’s sprightly attacking unit containing the likes of Mesut Ozil, Santi Cazorla, Theo Walcott and Alexis Sanchez is given space to perform. Sanchez, in particular, is thriving as a so-called ‘false nine’ up front in the absence of injured striker Olivier Giroud. But Arsene Wenger’s team can struggle and get frustrated when teams sit back and defend in numbers. Bradley, an experienced, savvy coach who has watched the Premier League from afar for years, values teamwork highly and that will be needed at Emirates Stadium. “I believe he is equipped to deal with what is requested of him,” Wenger said yesterday, when asked if Bradley would be a success at Swansea. Bradley will look to continue Swansea’s good recent record against Arsenal, with three wins in their last five meetings most recently a 2-1 win at the Emirates in March. “It is a tough first game (under Bradley), but we don’t mind playing that,” Swansea defender Neil Taylor said. “We would be probably written off even if we were in form.” DEVASTATING FORCE MANCHESTER CITY VS EVERTON UNBEATEN SPURS Wayne Rooney would love nothing more than to score against Liverpool tomorrow. He may not get the chance. Rooney has started on the bench for Man United’s last two league games and was also dropped by England this week, demoted to a substitute’s role against Slovenia on Tuesday. The former Everton forward has previously said he “hates” Liverpool, comments which are regularly brought up to add an inflammatory edge to what already is traditionally the biggest game in English football. Northwest rivals United (20) and Liverpool (18) have more league titles than any other teams in the country. Liverpool are in fourth place, three points ahead of sixth-place United. LIVERPOOL VS MANCHESTER UNITED It’s a first managerial meeting tomorrow between two disciples of Johan Cruyff: Pep Guardiola and Ronald Koeman. Koeman acted as a mentor for a young Guardiola when they played together under Cruyff at Barcelona in the early 1990s, with both players central to the style desired by the late Dutch great. Now they are two of the most respected coaches around. Guardiola, in his first season in English football, has guided City to first place in the league with six wins from seven games, while Everton are in fifth place in Koeman’s first season at Goodison Park. Boosted by a 2-0 win over Manchester City last time out, second-place Tottenham protects the league’s only unbeaten record when they visit West Bromwich Albion tomorrow, when it’s also Chelsea vs Leicester, Bournemouth vs Hull, Stoke vs Sunderland and Crystal Palace vs West Ham. On Sunday, Middlesbrough host Watford and Southampton are at home to Burnley.
MOST READ Scientists seek rare species survivors amid Australia flames Obscure Filipinos rank 1-2 at Luisita Lights inside SMX hall flicker as Duterte rants vs Ayala, Pangilinan anew With momentum swinging to their side, the Muntinlupa Cagers seek to send the MPBL Anta Rajah Cup into a winner-take-all Game 5 when they square off with Batangas City Athletics on Thursday at Muntinlupa Sports Center.The Cagers lived to fight another day after a thrilling 82-77 victory in Game 3 where Pari Llagas and Allan Mangahas delivered the telling blows to cut the series lead, 2-1.ADVERTISEMENT View comments P16.5-M worth of aid provided for Taal Volcano eruption victims — NDRRMC Carpio hits red carpet treatment for China Coast Guard PLAY LIST 02:14Carpio hits red carpet treatment for China Coast Guard02:56NCRPO pledges to donate P3.5 million to victims of Taal eruption00:56Heavy rain brings some relief in Australia02:37Calm moments allow Taal folks some respite03:23Negosyo sa Tagaytay City, bagsak sa pag-aalboroto ng Bulkang Taal01:13Christian Standhardinger wins PBA Best Player award Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. Truck driver killed in Davao del Sur road accident ‘Stop romanticizing Pinoy resilience’ An 18-1 blitz to start the game keyed the Cagers’ first win in the series as the Athletics, backed by Tanduay, failed to complete a comeback with Llagas and Dave Moralde hitting clutch baskets down the stretch.“I think we’re going to have a Game 5,” said Muntinlupa coach Aldrin Morante, fully confident that the Cagers can tie the series. “We’re capable of coming back. Hopefully in the next game, we start strong again.”FEATURED STORIESSPORTSGinebra beats Meralco again to capture PBA Governors’ Cup titleSPORTSAfter winning title, time for LA Tenorio to give back to Batangas folkSPORTSTim Cone, Ginebra set their sights on elusive All-Filipino crownLlagas had 11 of his 19 points in the final quarter, including a short jumper with 55 seconds remaining to extend the lead, 79-74. After Paul Varilla completed a three-point play, Moralde buried a turnaround jumper for an 81-77 advantage.Mangahas finished with 23 points and nine assists for the Cagers, who limited the high-scoring Val Acuna to a tournament-low three points. Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next Jo Koy draws ire for cutting through Cebu City traffic with ‘wang-wang’ Volcano watch: Island fissures steaming, lake water receding In fight vs corruption, Duterte now points to Ayala, MVP companies as ‘big fish’ Green group flags ‘overkill’ use of plastic banderitas in Manila Sto. Niño feast LATEST STORIES
– over alleged non-approval of environmental permits A group of local activists have filed an appeal in the court challenging the legality of the Government in granting production licences to two major oil companies without first granting them an environmental permit to operate offshore Guyana.Ramon Gaskin, one of the group’s members, in whose name the application was made against the Government and Natural Resources Minister, said the appeal is at the Guyana Court of Appeal, challenging a High Court judge’s decision not to grant a temporary order against oil companies Hess and Nexen.Activist and Attorney, Melinda JankiGaskin, an outspoken economist, told Guyana Times on Sunday that although the Government has since come out to state that it would defend the companies, the group has decided that filing the appeal would be most appropriate to get the Government to ensure the full protection of the environment.The activist views the judge’s non-approval of the temporary order as an error in the law. He maintained that the case must be taken seriously, as there are provisions within the Environmental Act and the application of the environmental law to ensure that permits are granted in full.Gaskin, through his attorney, Melinda Janki, argued that Hess and Nexen are not covered by the environmental permits issued to ExxonMobil through its local subsidiary, Esso Exploration and Production Guyana Limited. As such, he wants to see that these companies are issued separate permits to operate.Janki said Government’s granting of licences to drill was illegal. Under local law, a licence to drill can be granted only if an environmental permit has been obtained by the company involved.“It is very simple. If you want to extract oil in Guyana, you need an environmental permit in order to get a petroleum production licence… Only one of the three companies involved has an environmental permit. We are seeking an order to quash the decision by the minister to issue the licence, because we are saying he acted illegally,” the attorney told the UK Guardian recently.Despite her comments, the Government has said that while it respects the right of every citizen to seek recourse in law in pursuit of interests it believes to be worthy, it feels confident that every action it (Govt) took with regard to the issuance of the petroleum production licence met all legal requirements.The Ministry of Natural Resources has said that this sort of action is not unusual in emerging oil economies, particularly during the stage leading up to first oil, at which Guyana currently is.Since filing the appeal application, the group of activists, have launched a campaign through Crowd Justice, dubbed “A Fair Deal for Guyana – A Fair Deal for the Planet.” Gaskin said the objective of the campaign is to raise funding to ensure that Government and the oil companies obey the law, and to enable concerned citizens to protect the environment for present and future generations.While the lawyers for the group have been offering pro bono work, it has been recognized that it’s a huge undertaking to challenge the Government and what they described as the powerful oil sector. The activists said Guyana has a strong legal regime for protecting the environment. As such, they intend to use these laws to safeguard biodiversity and protect the environment for present and future generations.“We know it will require significant legal time and costs. Nevertheless, we believe that we must do everything legally possible to protect our common home, and to ensure that the Government and the oil companies obey the law. We owe this to our children and grandchildren,” the group said.More importantly, however, the group said it recognizes that the seas surrounding Guyana are under threat by these big oil companies. It said it also believes that the Government is putting the natural world and the home of all Guyanese in danger, something that it is not prepared to allow to continue.The group also noted that no one seems to be paying attention to the impact of oil production on global climate change, which, according to them, is the biggest threat to life on earth.
Aston Villa legend Dwight Yorke believes he is the ideal man to take charge at Villa Park following the departure of Tim Sherwood.Former Tottenham coach Sherwood was axed as boss after Saturday’s 2-1 defeat to Swansea left the Villans bottom of the Premier League table.The 46-year-old oversaw just six wins out of 23 matches in charge – the shortest spell of any permanent Aston Villa manager.Brendan Rodgers, David Moyes and former Lyon boss Remi Garde have all been linked with the vacancy, but Yorke has urged the club to give him a chance.The ex-Villa and Manchester United striker claims his intimate knowledge of the Midlands outfit will help him turn the Villans’ season around, despite his lack of managerial experience.“People are going to say I’m crazy for putting my name in the hat,” he told the Alan Brazil Sports Breakfast. “But I’ve been involved in football for a very long time and, having played for Aston Villa for ten years, I’ve looked at the club and seen the direction they’re heading in – it’s a dire situation.“Yes, Tim was sacked yesterday and that’s very sad, but it’s a situation that’s been ongoing for around five years now.“You look at the way Villa have spent their time in the Premier league, avoiding relegation just by the skin of their teeth. They’re bottom of the league now and it’s a very worrying time for the club.“You look at their squad and think they should be doing much better than they did under Tim, but the most worrying thing is that their main rivals in the table, the likes of Leicester, West Brom and Stoke, they all have better squads and for me that is absolutely crazy!“Aston Villa are supposed to be the biggest club in the Midlands, but they’re nowhere near. They think they are a big club but the reality is that Villa, certainly in the last five or six years, have been deteriorating rapidly and that’s why they’re at the bottom of the table.“People will say I don’t have any experience, but we’ve seen people with experience go in there and struggle to do a job. I know that club inside out and I’ve looked at the squad, there’s enough in there to get them out in this position and there’s enough time as well.“It’s whether the owners are prepared to give an aspiring young manager an opportunity.”Yorke believes he offers his former side something the other managers currently available do not.The ex-frontman, who was discovered in the West Indies by then-manager Graham Taylor and went on to score close to 100 goals in over 250 appearances for Villa, says his passion for the club and relationship with the fans will help bring a ‘spark’ back to Villa Park.He added: “You look at the managers available now, it’s a merry-go-round. In the 30 years I’ve been involved in football it’s been the same people getting job after job, so why are young managers doing all their coaching badges but not getting that opportunity?“There are young people ready to break into management and I don’t see any reason why I shouldn’t put my name in the hat.“Villa need something to really spark them up right now. I spent ten years there, I had a fantastic relationship with the fans there and I just feel when I look around at the managers up for grabs at the moment that they need something a bit more exciting to come in and really lift the place.”
Wolves 1-1 Manchester City (12:30pm)Aymeric Laporte rescued a point for Manchester City as the champions were frustrated by battling Wolves.The defender earned a 1-1 draw, cancelling out Willy Boly’s controversial opener at Molineux after the Wolves centre-back appeared to score with his arm.Sergio Aguero – twice – and Raheem Sterling hit the frame of the goal for City while Wolves’ Raul Jimenez had a strike disallowed for offside.It was only the fifth time City had dropped points in the Premier League this calendar year, despite dominating for long spells. 5 King’s penalty brought Bournemouth back into the game 5 5 Gray bagged Leicester’s first goal Bournemouth 2-2 EvertonBournemouth came back from 2-0 down to salvage a draw against Everton with both sides reduced to ten men.The goalless first half ended with Richarlison being sent off for an attempted headbutt on Adam Smith, but this didn’t deter the visitors, who took the lead through Theo Walcott and doubled it thanks to Michael Keane.In between Everton’s two goals, Bournemouth’s Smith was sent off for pulling back Walcott who had begun to race towards Asmir Begovic.However, Joshua King’s penalty followed by Nathan Ake’s tap-in saw the Cherries bring it back to 2-2. Southampton 1-2 LeicesterHarry Maguire’s late drive handed Claude Puel sweet revenge over his ex-employers as Leicester saw off 10-man Southampton 2-1 at St Mary’s.England defender Maguire’s drilled effort in stoppage time added insult to injury for Saints, who had Pierre-Emile Hojbjerg sent off for two bookings.Ryan Bertrand’s thunderbolt strike on his 150th appearance for the club had the hosts in front, only for Demarai Gray to equalise just four minutes later.Hojbjerg’s dismissal after diving in the Leicester box gifted the Foxes the chance to steal the points, and the visitors duly obliged – much to Puel’s delight. The deadlock could not be broken between Huddersfield and Cardiff 5 5 Huddersfield 0-0 CardiffJonathan Hogg was sent off following an ugly collision with Harry Arter as Huddersfield and Cardiff ground out a goalless draw that did little to advertise their Premier League pedigree.Both sides are tipped as relegation candidates and if this was really the earliest imaginable ‘six-pointer’ of the season then taking one apiece suggests a long, hard campaign could be on the way for David Wagner and Neil Warnock.Hogg saw red just after the hour, aggravated by Arter but responding boorishly – first pushing forward with his head then shoving the midfielder to the ground.That gave Cardiff time to press for a win which had never previously seemed likely, but they proved no more able than their hosts to summon a cutting edge worthy of the top flight. Here’s what happened in the 3pm kick-offs in the Premier League on Saturday, August 25…Arsenal 3-1 West HamUnai Emery toasted a first victory as Arsenal head coach as his side came from behind to seal an unconvincing win over London rivals West Ham.The Gunners had lost to Manchester City and Chelsea in Emery’s first two games at the helm and could easily have slipped to a third defeat before eventually running out 3-1 winners at the Emirates Stadium.West Ham, who have now lost their first three matches under Manuel Pellegrini, took the lead through Marko Arnautovic only for Nacho Monreal to equalise soon after.Arsenal went in front through a debut own goal from Issa Diop and Danny Welbeck came off the bench to score a late third. Nacho Monreal netted Arsenal’s equaliser Boly’s goal caused controversy
CLICK HERE if you are having a problem viewing the photos or video on a mobile deviceThe Warriors picked up their first road win since October 29 on Monday, beating the Atlanta Hawks 128-111 in the Peachtree State.You might remember that Oct. 29 game — that was the contest where Klay Thompson set the NBA record for 3-pointers in a game with 14. Here’s what we learned from Monday’s contest:Kevon Looney is (still) the Warriors’ best centerOf course, this was true before Monday’s …
Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest By Todd NeeleyDTN Staff ReporterOMAHA (DTN) — The White House Office of Management and Budget showed EPA how to account for biofuel gallons lost to small-refinery waivers, but the EPA ignored the OMB’s suggestions, interagency review documents show.Documents posted to regulations.gov on the 2020 Renewable Fuel Standard volumes show reviewers of the rule suggested EPA reallocate waived volumes of biofuels in the 2020 proposal.In addition, the OMB provided a possible method for restoring 500 million gallons of blending obligations that were erroneously waived in 2016. The U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit ordered the 2016 gallons to be accounted for in future rulemaking, but the agency declined to do so in its latest volumes proposal.President Donald Trump’s EPA has waived about 4.03 billion gallons of biofuels since 2016, as a result of granting 85 small-refinery waivers.“EPA put a zero in for projected volume of gasoline for exempt small refineries and projected volume of diesel for exempt small refineries, ensuring your projected totals are not met and all actual outcomes or resulting biofuel requirements are biased to one side, lower,” an OMB reviewer said in interagency comments.“This bias appears in outcomes for every requirement, including your cellulosic-volume requirement which the court directed to you to have a ‘neutral’ estimate. You also draw a conclusion about the ability to achieve certain volumes with respect to the blend wall, while simultaneously ensuring that your calculated total is not the actual requirement, thus your requirement relative to the blend wall is wrong.”EPA had not responded to DTN’s request for comment at the time this article was posted.OMB reviewers offered a possible solution for accounting for waived gallons in order to make sure the overall total RFS volumes were met.That included providing a projection of about 12.5 billion exempted gasoline and diesel gallons in the RFS formula — or close to the actual average exempted volume of 12.8 billion gallons of gasoline and diesel during the 2016-2018 period.In addition, OMB reviewers suggested EPA should adjust renewable volume obligation percentages to incorporate projected gasoline and diesel exempted through small-refinery waivers.EPA responded, “The approach taken in this proposal is consistent with the approach first laid out in 2011 and followed since, and we have not proposed to revisit it. Whether to revisit this issue is a matter already under review at agency leadership levels and we anticipate discussing it further while this action is under review.”The OMB was critical of EPA’s decision not to abide by the court decision saying, “You reject the ACE court remand because you conclude there is no ‘room’ to incorporate it, knowing that the stated RVO will not be achieved because of the issuance, and lack of incorporation of, small-refinery waivers.”EPA’s responded, “This issue and our response to the ACE remand are the subject of ongoing discussions.”Renewable Fuels Association President and CEO Geoff Cooper said in a news release on Monday that the interagency comments show the OMB was aware of repeated concerns made known by agriculture and biofuel interests and tried to do something about it.“The revelations in these documents will only exacerbate the outrage and anger in farm country over EPA’s abuse of the small-refinery waiver provision,” he said. “The documents clearly show that EPA knowingly ignored strong recommendations from within the administration to redistribute blending volumes that were exempted via small-refinery waivers. EPA also disregarded recommendations to address a court order to restore 500 million gallons of lost blending obligations from 2016.”OMB suggested the agency could remand the 500 million gallons in increments. That would include increasing the overall RFS volumes by 75 million gallons in 2020, 175 million in 2021 and 250 million in 2022.Cooper said the agency could change course in its newly proposed renewable volume obligations currently pending before the EPA.“The solution to the small-refinery waiver problem was right in front of EPA’s face the whole time, yet they chose to snatch defeat from the jaws of victory,” he said.“The only way to begin calming the anxiety and aggravation in rural America is for EPA to immediately announce that it will resolve these issues in the upcoming 2020 RVO final rule. EPA must adopt the prospective reallocation approach recommended during the interagency review process in the 2020 rule, as well as include the 500-million-gallon remand. Anything short of that will be viewed by farmers and biofuel producers as another sellout to the oil industry and another kick in the teeth to the hardworking families in the Heartland.”Read more of interagency review documents here: https://www.regulations.gov/…Todd Neeley can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.orgFollow him on Twitter @toddneeleyDTN(AG/CZ)© Copyright 2019 DTN/The Progressive Farmer. All rights reserved.
Every night, glass frog fathers face a tough choice: care for the eggs they have already fertilized, or abandon them to get busy with other females. Fortunately, the eggs—which rely on their dads to moisten them nightly as they develop on leaves—have figured out a way to take care of themselves. New research shows that abandoned glass frogs deal with delinquent dads by hatching early, thus avoiding the chance of death by desiccation.The work “makes us think about embryos as cognitive organisms that can assess their environment and make some sort of appropriate response rather than just passively being on a timetable [for hatching],” says Karen Martin, a physiological ecologist at Pepperdine University in Malibu, California, who was not involved in the study.In the 1990s, Karen Warkentin, an integrative biologist at Boston University (BU), discovered a tropical frog that can hatch early in response to vibrations from snakes and other would-be predators. More recently, another team has discovered that lizard embryos do likewise. Other scientists have shown that temperature—such as the warmth provided by birds incubating eggs—can also speed up development. But Jesse Delia, now a graduate student at BU, wanted to know whether the loss of parental care had any effect on when an egg hatched.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)Even before becoming a graduate student, Delia was fascinated by glass frogs, which are native to Central and South America and named for their translucent skin. The male glass frog, in particular, has quite the nightlife. After dark, he kicks things off by fighting with other males and calling to lure in females. But he won’t wait forever: If no female visits him before midnight, he spends the rest of the night hopping from leaf to leaf to visit the clutches of eggs he previously fertilized. He waters each for up to a half-hour before moving on to the next, likely preventing the delicate embryos from drying out. But when a female does show up, the male glass frog forgets all about his paternal duties, climbs up on her back, and spends the next few days in the thrall of mating. “During that time, all the other clutches get neglected,” Delia says.To assess the consequences of dad delinquency, Delia removed 40 males from their clutches between 2 and 8 days after the eggs were laid. He monitored how well the abandoned embryos did, how fast they developed, and when they hatched. He compared that data with similar information collected about the clutches of 50 males who were faithful to their duties. And to make sure his laboratory experiment accurately reflected what happened in nature, Delia stayed up night after night near a remote stream in Colombia monitoring 18 wild males and their clutches.Removing a male just 2 days after the eggs were laid was fatal to the embryos, Delia and his colleagues found. If a dad stuck around between 3 and 8 days, on the other hand, the embryos survived—having become sufficiently hydrated—but hatched after about 12 days, the team reports online today in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B. Well-cared-for eggs took twice as long to hatch, he notes. By examining the embryos, he determined that development didn’t speed up in the abandoned eggs. Instead, they simply hatched at a less mature stage: Their guts were simpler and they continued munching on the egg’s yolk for nutrients even after hatching.At 12 days, “they are ready to hatch, but they can wait a few days,” Martin explains. “If conditions are good—it’s nice and wet and there’s still yolk available—the simplest thing to do is to stay as they are. If not, then it’s probably good to move on.””It’s really amazing that these tiny frog embryos can detect changes in parental care and adjust their behavior in response to whether dad is present or not,” says Hope Klug, an evolutionary biologist at the University of Tennessee, Chattanooga, who was not involved in the study.The work “opens up a new way to think about parent-offspring interaction,” says Suzanne Alonzo, an evolutionary biologist at Yale University. Thanks to studies like Delia’s, she says, scientists must now consider how a parent’s actions can influence the evolution of an embryo’s behavior. If a parent always tends the eggs, there’s no need to evolve flexibility in hatching time. But if the parent, like the male glass frog, is unpredictable, then this “hatching plasticity” comes in handy.Delia’s result “exemplifies how parental and offspring strategies coevolve,” says Tobias Uller, an evolutionary biologist at the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom, with the evolution of parental care affecting the evolution of the embryo. And, Martin adds, “If you really think about it, for many animals the most vulnerable stage is early in life, and that’s probably where a lot of evolution is occurring. [Embryos] are not just a life stage that is waiting to become an adult.”
You’re not completely human, at least when it comes to the genetic material inside your cells. You—and everyone else—may harbor as many as 145 genes that have jumped from bacteria, other single-celled organisms, and viruses and made themselves at home in the human genome. That’s the conclusion of a new study, which provides some of the broadest evidence yet that, throughout evolutionary history, genes from other branches of life have become part of animal cells.“This means that the tree of life isn’t the stereotypical tree with perfectly branching lineages,” says biologist Alastair Crisp of the University of Cambridge in the United Kingdom, an author of the new paper. “In reality, it’s more like one of those Amazonian strangler figs where the roots are all tangled and crossing back across each other.”Scientists knew that horizontal gene transfer—the movement of genetic information between organisms other than parent-to-offspring inheritance—is commonplace in bacteria and simple eukaryotes. The process lets the organisms quickly share an antibiotic-resistance set of genes to adapt to an antibiotic, for instance. But whether genes have been horizontally transferred into higher organisms—like primates—has been disputed. Like in bacteria, it’s been proposed that animal cells could integrate foreign genetic material that’s introduced as small fragments of DNA or carried into cells by viruses. But proving that a bit of DNA in the human genome originally came from another organism is tricky.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)Crisp and his colleagues analyzed the genome sequences of 40 different animal species, ranging from fruit flies and roundworms to zebrafish, gorillas, and humans. For each gene in the genomes, the scientists searched existing databases to find close matches—both among other animals and among nonanimals, including plants, fungi, bacteria, and viruses. When an animal’s gene more closely matched a gene from a nonanimal than any other animals, the researchers took a closer look, using computational methods to determine whether the initial database search had missed something.In all, the researchers pinpointed hundreds of genes that appeared to have been transferred from bacteria, archaea, fungi, other microorganisms, and plants to animals, they report online today in Genome Biology. In the case of humans, they found 145 genes that seemed to have jumped from simpler organisms, including 17 that had been reported in the past as possible horizontal gene transfers.“I think what this shows it that horizontal gene transfer is not just confined to microorganisms but has played a role in the evolution of many animals,” Crisp says, “perhaps even all animals.The paper doesn’t give any hints as to how the genes—which now play established roles in metabolism, immune responses, and basic biochemistry—may have been transferred or the exact timeline of the jumps, he says. That will take more work.The findings are critical to understanding evolution, says Hank Seifert, a molecular biologist at the Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine in Chicago, Illinois. “This is a very well-done paper. They used all the latest data they could find, all the genomes in the databases,” he says. “It makes it clearer than ever that there has been a history, throughout evolution, of gene transfer between organisms.”But not all agree that the new evidence is indisputable. “I see little here that is particularly convincing evidence for horizontal gene transfer,” says microbiologist Jonathan Eisen of the University of California, Davis. He doesn’t rule out that horizontal gene transfer between bacteria and animals is possible, but says that there are other explanations for the identified genes being present in only some branches of the evolutionary tree—a gene that existed in a far-off ancestor could have simply been lost in many relatives other than two seemingly unrelated species, for instance. “It is up to [the researchers] to exclude other, more plausible alternatives, and I just do not think they have done that.”*Correction, 16 March, 12:37 p.m.: The piece has been updated to clarify the fact that bacteria are not eukaryotes.
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