Updated: 2.30pm 9/12/2019A closure order was enforced on a Letterkenny takeaway last month over breaches of food safety regulations.East Ocean at 61 Port Road Letterkenny was served with a temporary closure order by the Health Service Executive on 5th November. The order was lifted on the 12th of November. The takeaway was found to be in breach of the FSAI Act 1998.Closure orders are served on businesses if authorised officers find that there is or there is likely to be a grave and immediate danger to public health at/or in the food premises.An inspection at East Ocean last month found a number of food safety breaches.Failure to protect food from contamination Food was stored uncovered in dirty fridges and freezers and food was stored in dirty containers throughout the premises. Some peppers were being prepared on the draining board of a sink that was also being used to wash dirty containers. Prawns were being drained into a dirty colander. A container of raw eggs was placed in noodles at one point during the inspection.The inspector noted that there was a failure to provide hot water for cleaning and disinfecting, which is a risk of food contamination, and there was no washhand basin available for staff. As a result, thy reported that no hand washing was seen taking place.There was a ‘lack of confidence’ that the food business could provide safe food as there was no evidence of a management system for food safety and the “person in charge had poor knowledge of food safety risks and of the measures necessary to ensure the safety of food…”Closures Orders can refer to the immediate closure of all or part of the food premises, or all or some of its activities.The Orders are lifted when the premises has improved to the satisfaction of the authorised officer. A total of 20 Irish businesses were served with closure orders for breaches of food safety legislation in November.Letterkenny takeaway forced to close over food safety concerns was last modified: December 9th, 2019 by Staff WriterShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window)
Examine the following quotation and see if it sounds like what Darwin or Lamarck would say: Somewhere in the murky past, between four and seven million years ago, a hungry common ancestor of today’s primates, including humans, did something novel. While temporarily standing on its rear feet to reach a piece of fruit, this protohominid spotted another juicy morsel in a nearby shrub and began shuffling toward it instead of dropping on all fours, crawling to the shrub and standing again. A number of reasons have been proposed for the development of bipedal behavior, or walking on two feet, and now researchers from the University of Washington and Johns Hopkins University have developed a mathematical model that suggests shuffling emerged as a precursor to walking as a way of saving metabolic energy.This is how Science Daily began a story about the evolution of human upright posture. No attempt was made to tie the behavior to random mutations or to explain how natural selection acted on them. It sounds like Lamarck’s old hypothesis of the inheritance of acquired characteristics through use and disuse – a discredited idea according to most contemporary Darwinists. Nor was an explanation offered, if the new stance was so effective, why modern apes still stoop around most of the time on all fours. Lest Science Daily be accused of misunderstanding evolutionary theory, quotations in the article tie the Lamarckism to the researchers themselves. Patrick Kramer, an anthropologist at University of Washington, said, “There is nothing that will get you to do something you don’t want to do other than food. That’s why we bribe animals with food to train them.” Yet after centuries of bribing animals with food to stand upright, no elephant, horse or ape has acquired upright stance by either Lamarck’s or Darwin’s mechanism. The researchers studied metabolic efficiency of standing, knuckle-walking and shuffling, but such measurements are about living animals. They have no necessary connection to the evolutionary theory that made Darwin famous: natural selection acting on random variations.If a creationist were to make this kind of blunder, or tell this kind of just-so story, he or she would be condemned as an ignoramus. Yet evolutionists get away with violating their own theoretical principles time and again and are only rarely called on the carpet for it (05/31/2004). Why? Because in support of their worldview (naturalism), facts don’t matter (see Fairfax’s Law in the Baloney Detector). All’s fair in love for Darwin and war against creationism. That’s why Darwin himself slipped back toward Lamarckism in his later years when stubborn facts hampered his ability to market natural selection. A political cartoon by Mike Shelton illustrates unequal standards. It applies just as well if relabeled with a Darwinist donkey and a creationist elephant. Evolutionists will scream and preach about honesty when criticizing a creationist position, but then will lie shamelessly in their own work and call it science. They will even lie while calling their critics liars, and hypocritically call creationists hypocrites (see Evolution News). You can almost hear in advance the charges that would come from the pro-Darwin blogs about our pointing out this little inconsistency in their latest just-so story. Let a creationist be caught in some inconsistency, and the sparks would fly: You creationists are such hypocrites; you Bible-thumping fundamentalists with your narrow religious agenda show that you just don’t understand science. Let an evolutionist be caught in an inconsistency, and the response will be either (1) ignoring the criticism, or (2) rationalization, like Well, you know what I meant, and we all know that a foolish consistency is the hobgoblin of little minds. (Visited 7 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
When jetBlue first arrived on the scene in 1999, it billed itself as a low cost carrier offering better than low cost service. Their fleet of all new Airbus A320s was equipped with dark blue leather seats plus free satellite TV, and the airline certainly delivered on their promise. Today, Premium Economy service generally offers passengers more leg room plus additional amenities such as early boarding, or perhaps free food and inflight entertainment for a reasonable price. On jetBlue’s ‘Even More Space’ (EMS), some of those niceties are offered, and some are not. The key here is the type of aircraft, as the EMS experience was noticeably different aboard the airline’s older Airbus A320s or new A321s. This review is of EMS service on jetBlue’s A321 with Mint-class forward cabin. Seat and AmenitiesEMS seats are offered in select rows on all jetBlue aircraft, but the A321 comes in two different configurations. The “Core’ aircraft has 190 seats, 40 of which are reserved as EMS rows. These jetliners have seat backs measuring 18-inches wide, while A321s configured up-front for Mint flights have 159 seats, 40 for EMS passengers. These seat backs are narrower, however. (jetBlue’s A320s have 150 seats, 42 for EMS.)While EMS afforded early boarding and early overhead bin access, two surprises awaited this traveler upon entering the A321 (named ‘It’s Mint To Be’). For one thing, both large overhead bins at my row were already closed with no one yet onboard. Then the big surprise: my EMS window seat, 18F, wasn’t next to an emergency overwing exit, but rather the R3 emergency exit door. This meant no window, no outboard armrest, and a Flight Attendant jump seat on the aisle. When I inquired about this being an actual EMS seat, the senior Flight Attendant apologized, inferring this was a common complaint, and offered me a complimentary cocktail once airborne, as well as an offer to change to an available Economy seat.There were no amenity kits on the seats themselves, as I learned that anything you might want – earphones, blankets, pillows, and of course food, had to be purchased. I was also surprised to see stains on the seats of an airplane in service less than three months. Ambient cabin lighting was pleasant and more than adequate during the boarding process.The seats themselves are quite handsome, covered in supple two-tone charcoal and light gray leather with tan stitching and free-standing headrests embossed with the EMS logo. Seat backs were 16 inches wide while the seat cushion measured 19 inches wide. Seat backs reclined 6 inches, but the biggest feature was seat pitch – a whopping 41 inches, compared to 33 inches in regular Economy. During the flight, the lack of a window was only a minor annoyance until we encountered moderate turbulence. During those active moments, the lack of visual cues made my enclosed space feel somewhat claustrophobic. If you are prone to motion sickness, I would highly recommend avoiding Row 18.Food and BeveragesOnce airborne, I discovered the reason why those overhead compartments were closed. They were used for stowing packages of bottled water, all of which had to be retrieved by a flight attendant at the beginning of beverage service 30 minutes after takeoff. Meals were offered for purchase one hour after takeoff as flight attendants came down the aisle with portable devices to charge your credit card and print a receipt. Two menus were available. The first, named ‘EAT UP,’ contained various health and nutrition-oriented snacks priced at $6.00US, while the second, named ‘EAT UP CAFE,’ offered supposedly more substantial meals for up to twice the snack prices, but serving sizes were modest and the quality of food was average at best. Those meal selections consisted of raw veggie platters and sandwiches, with a top of the line Top Sirloin Steak sandwich costing $12.00US. I ordered the Grilled Chicken and Brie sandwich with a quinoa and raisin salad. The sandwich consisted mostly of bread, with a thin layer of brie and small chunks of chicken. Meals are pictured on sleek white china on the menu, but are actually served in clear plastic containers. Complimentary juices, sodas, and bottled water were then served along with light snacks such as pretzels, popcorn, animal crackers, and chocolate chip cookies. The free drink and snack service was offered again about an hour before landing.In-flight EntertainmentThis feature, a highlight on all jetBlue flights, helped establish the airline’s early favorable reputation, and IFE on the new A321 raises the bar yet again. Easy viewing 10-inch high definition screens are at Economy and EMS seats, with a selection of movies, TV shows, special features, and music that is second to none. Headphones (ear buds, actually) are available for purchase at $3.00US.Let’s start with 80 – yes, 80 channels of DirecTV programming. Then there’s a choice of six major feature films and jetBlueTV programs. Add 100-plus channels of Sirius XM radio and the inflight Map Channel, and you have plenty to keep you occupied on any transcontinental flight. The image quality is simply outstanding, and doesn’t seem as affected by outside sunlight as earlier technology inflight screens. One minor inconvenience is the remote control panel on the armrest located just forward of your elbow. Lean on it a bit too hard, and you inadvertently change channels or revert to the home page main menu.The needs of the digital age are met handily with jetBlue’s new ‘Fly Fi’ feature that comes in two modes: ‘Simply Surf’ for standard browsing and ‘Fly Fi Plus’ (available for purchase) which gives you wider broadband capability for streaming movies. Simply power up your digital device, open the wireless network connection, launch or refresh your browser window, sign-in and agree to terms, and you’re off and running.Customer ServiceFrom the very beginning, cabin crewmembers were pleasant and courteous, but seemed a bit stressed. While they all performed their duties with pride and passion, the A321s high passenger-to-flight attendant ratio seemed to leave them frustrated. A fifth FA is definitely needed on the A321, and upon talking to the crew at the end of the flight, they too mentioned how they would appreciate having just one more FA in Economy, allowing them to give the high level of dedicated service they pride themselves on delivering.That said, having the flight attendant jump seat on the aisle of Row 18 meant that passengers had to watch the FA make cabin announcements while reading from a cue card, and because of the proximity of seats to the emergency exit doors, the FA had to awkwardly reach across the passengers (apologizing once again) to arm and de-arm the door at takeoff and landing and stow the ”REMOVE BEFORE FLIGHT” banner. Other amenities available for purchase included a dark blue Arm & Hammer blanket for $5.00US, and a dark blue Claritin neck pillow for $6.00US. On a positive note, small rolled hot towels were distributed to EMS passengers free of charge approximately 30 minutes before landing – a welcome touch at the end of a five hour plus transcontinental flight. Hot towels were not offered on the A320 EMS return flight, however.Final Word‘Even More Space’ service (including ‘Even More Speed’ for priority TSA screening) is available on all jetBlue flights starting at $10 one way. Pricing varies by route and length of flight, and EMS seat rows differ with each aircraft type.While my overall jetBlue EMS experience met with mixed reviews, it still offers passengers a distinct advantage over standard Economy which itself is fairly comfortable. Increased legroom, early boarding, and first choice at an overhead compartment are nice, but having to purchase earphones, pillows, blankets, and food onboard after paying the additional fare for EMS service tends to minimize the true cost advantage for the traveler.Would I pay for ‘Even More Space’ service on my next jetBlue flight to New York? Yes, I would, primarily for the benefits of priority TSA screening, early boarding, and that very generous extra legroom. However, the crown jewel of the jetBlue transcon experience is your departure or arrival at the airline’s stunning new Terminal 5 at JFK. This terminal will be the subject of a separate AirlineRatings review, but I can assure you, that experience alone is worth the price of the ticket.Mike flew as a guest of jetBlue on August 18 and 19, 2014.
As part of the series of concessions being granted to the real estate sector, which is facing a credit crunch, the State government aims to help relax the ban on construction in the buffer zone around flamingo sanctuaries in Mumbai and Thane.Ahead of the Assembly polls, the State government is pushing the Union Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC) to notify Eco Sensitive Zones (ESZs) around the sanctuaries. The notification will help real estate developers seek a relief from the ban imposed by the apex court on construction within the buffer zone. Real estate bodies have submitted an affidavit to the courts on the need to lift the ban for the benefit of the industry. ‘Fast-track proposal’According to the Supreme Court directive dated December 11, 2018, unless the State government notifies ESZs, a 10-km buffer has to be marked from the boundaries of flamingo sanctuaries. As per the directive, construction will be banned within or around the buffer zone. Real estate representatives have demanded the proposal to declare the sanctuaries as ESZs be put on the fast track. An environment department official said, “We have done our bit to mark out the ESZs and forwarded the proposals to the (MoEFCC) from the Mangrove Cell of the Maharashtra Forest Department. The developers have moved the courts seeking relief from the ban, which will become easier once ESZs are marked.”In the recent past, the government has relaxed a variety of environmental permissions while lifting cess and premium charges on projects to support the real estate sector. Twelve demands made by industry associations have been approved, including the submission of development proposals simultaneously to the planning authority and the Maharashtra Coastal Zone Management Authority (MCZMA). According to the existing practice, proposals in Coastal Regulation Zone (2) area are submitted first to the planning authority and later to the MCZMA. The government has decided to exempt real estate projects from an online system, which monitors commercial, information technology and green building projects. The Project Proponent (PP) will no longer be made responsible for operation and maintenance of pollution control systems in a housing society. Maharashtra Pollution Control Board regulations mandate that the PP be held responsible for five years for systems installed after the formation of a housing society in a residential project.Last week, Chief Minister Devendra Fadnavis had approved a slew of fiscal concessions to the struggling construction sector, setting the State exchequer back by ₹800 crore. Among the measures were the removal of development cess on the additional floor space index component. The premium charged in case of residential projects was reduced to 35% from 50%, while the commercial charges in the category were brought down to 40% from 60%. The premiums on construction of information technology parks, redevelopment of Maharashtra Housing Area Development Authority structures too was reduced by 50%, officials said.
Lyceum head coach Topex Robinson. Photo by Tristan Tamayo/INQUIRER.netThe NCAA has postponed its Tuesday’s games due to heavy rains brought about by tropical storm “Isang.”Juniors and seniors games between St. Benilde and Arellano; Perpetual and Emilio Aguinaldo; and league-leader Lyceum and Mapua were once again affected by the bad weather.ADVERTISEMENT Ethel Booba on hotel’s clarification that ‘kikiam’ is ‘chicken sausage’: ‘Kung di pa pansinin, baka isipin nila ok lang’ For the complete collegiate sports coverage including scores, schedules and stories, visit Inquirer Varsity. NATO’s aging eye in the sky to get a last overhaul View comments MOST READ Trump signs bills in support of Hong Kong protesters Celebrity chef Gary Rhodes dies at 59 with wife by his side Robredo should’ve resigned as drug czar after lack of trust issue – Panelo These were the same set of games that were postponed last July 28 due to tropical storm “Gorio.”The Pirates would have had a chance to complete a first-round sweep Tuesday against the Cardinals.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSSEA Games: Biñan football stadium stands out in preparedness, completionSPORTSPrivate companies step in to help SEA Games hostingSPORTSBoxers Pacquiao, Petecio torchbearers for SEA Games openingNo new schedule of the games has been announced. Triathletes Huelgas, Mangrobang snare gold; Chicano, Adorna take silver LATEST STORIES Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss PLAY LIST 02:49Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games01:44Philippines marks anniversary of massacre with calls for justice01:19Fire erupts in Barangay Tatalon in Quezon City01:07Trump talks impeachment while meeting NCAA athletes02:49World-class track facilities installed at NCC for SEA Games Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next Pagasa: Storm intensifies as it nears PAR Hotel says PH coach apologized for ‘kikiam for breakfast’ claim Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. Lacson: SEA Games fund put in foundation like ‘Napoles case’
OTTAWA – Conservative finance critic Pierre Poilievre will ask the House of Commons this week to force the government to show Canadians how much more they can expect to pay for gas, heat and groceries once every Canadian will be charged a $50 per tonne carbon tax.Poilievre says he knows the government has the information because access to information requests he filed produced a finance department memo that says there is an analysis of the potential impact of a carbon price, based on household consumption data across different income levels.However, he says the actual data from the analysis is blacked out.Poilievre says he has given notice of the intention to file a motion demanding the government table documents in the House that show how much a $50 per tonne carbon price will cost a median income Canadian family.The federal government requires every province to put a price on carbon by the start of next year or it will impose one itself. Legal authority to do so is laid out in the government’s budget implementation bill currently working its way through Parliament.Poilievre says the carbon price legislation takes up 200 pages of that bill, but nowhere does it say how much it will cost people.“Government cannot tax what Parliament does not approve, but Parliament cannot approve what it does not know,” Poilievre said Sunday. “Right now, Parliament is being kept in the dark.”In refusing to provide the analysis done by the department of finance, the government says it can be withheld because it is either advice to government or information that can possibly harm the Canadian economy.“If the knowledge of the cost of the carbon tax in itself would cause injury to the Canadian economy, then that cost must be even worse than we have imagined,” said Poilievre.He also filed a complaint with the information commissioner, asking her to investigate the government for its refusal to release the information in the access request response. He said Caroline Maynard has agreed and has started looking into the matter.Four provinces already have carbon pricing systems in place, but the federal requirement will mean on January 1, every province has to have a system that applies a price of at least $20 per tonne of carbon emissions. The price has to rise $10 per tonne per year until it reaches $50 per tonne in 2022. At that point, Ottawa will review the system.The documents outlining the proposed federal pricing system, to be used only in provinces that don’t have their own plan, do provide information about what impact the price will have to the cost various types of fuel such as gasoline, natural gas, propane and coal.However, Poilievre says it’s not detailed enough for individual families to understand what it means to them, because the price will not only affect the price at the pump but most of what people buy as the cost to produce and ship products also goes up.Environment Minister Catherine McKenna said Sunday a price on carbon has a low cost and high impact.“We know polluting isn’t free — there is a cost,” said McKenna.She said carbon pricing pushes for innovation to find ways to reduce emissions in order to pay less, and is one of the ways Canada will meet its international commitment to reduce climate-changing emissions.McKenna has also been criticized for not answering questions about how much emissions the carbon price will cut.“We will be releasing more information shortly,” she said Sunday.The Pan Canadian Framework on Clean Growth and Climate Change estimates 86 million tonnes of emissions will be eliminated in Canada from the measures contained within, but it does not specify how much of that is to come from carbon pricing.
Holly MooreAPTN InvestigatesAs the first phase of the National Inquiry into Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls (MMIWG) winds down, its future is still uncertain.For her episode “After the stories are told,” APTN Investigates producer Holly Moore travelled to hearings in Yellowknife, Winnipeg and Thunder Bay, Ont. to speak to survivors, families, and advocates.Phase one of the inquiry’s mandate, which was focussed on families and survivors testimony, ended April 20, but they’ve asked for a two-year extension and $50 million in additional money and are awaiting an answer from the federal government.There is, however, growing opposition to an extension amongst allies, advocates, and families including Maggie Cywink, a vocal critic, and MMIWG family member.“To me, it is beyond disrespectable,” she said. “This could have been an amazing experience for families if they hadn’t rushed through to get this done.”Maggie Cywink is a member of “Families for Justice”, a group of more than 20 MMIWG Families who have official standing at the Inquiry. David Moses/APTN NewsSome families and survivors have found healing, according to Marion Buller, the inquiry’s chief commissioner.“There have been a lot of families and survivors who say that getting in and testifying has been a turning point for me,” said Buller.Sandra Lockhart has survived an incredible amount of violence in her life. She came to her Inquiry hearing in Yellowknife with mixed emotions but ultimately found some healing.“It is just the beginning and I am not carrying what I call ‘dirt’ with me,” she said. “I am free of what was holding me down.”However, some have complained there is the lack of aftercare and counselling, for families who may have been traumatized from testifying at the hearings.Anita Ross’ daughter 16- year-old Delaine Copenace drowned in Kenora, Ont. in 2016.Ross drove five hours to Thunder Bay and told her daughter’s story. She says there was little follow up by inquiry staff after her hearing.Anita Ross went to the December 2017 hearing in Thunder Bay to talk about her daughter Delaine Copenace. Photo: Holly Moore/APTN News“The only contact I had was by email and that was about eight weeks later,” she said. “By email? You couldn’t call me and ask me? You should have called me right after but that didn’t happen.”Some grassroots groups like Ontario Native Women’s Association (ONWA) say they are trying to fill in the gaps in aftercare and provide some healing after testimony.“Let’s do what we can to reduce as much harm as we can,” said ONWA Executive Director Cora Lee McGuire Cyrette. “We said this is the inquiry that they are going to have, so let’s concentrate on the fallout, the harm to families. We are concentrating on harm reduction.”OWNA opened its spaces during the inquiry and offered beading, meals and drum groups.“We know people wanted to get away from their trauma, right? So its kind of the flight response so if they are being opened up and triggered where the inquiry is taking place,” she said.Cora Lee McGuire Cyrette is Executive Director of Ontario Native Women’s Association. Photo: Holly Moore/APTN NewsChief commissioner Marion Buller told APTN Investigates that the aftercare options are given to families at the point of intake but the services are not mandatory.“Sometimes families have said thanks but no thanks,” she said.Marion Buller is the chief commissioner of the National Inquiry into Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls. Photo: APTN NewsRoss said she was surprised that the inquiry staff did not have her daughter’s police report, coroner’s report or any other official paperwork available at her hearing.“All they had was clips from the Internet on stories of her,” she said. “In my position, I think it was a waste of time to drive up there and tell that story. “Without an extension, the inquiry will move to the next phases. Part two and three of the “truth-gathering process” will see commissioners interview decision-makers, politicians and policymakers in the areas of policing and child welfare.The first hearing will take place in Quebec City from May 14- May 17, 2018, but there is no information available on who will attend.See hearing dates here: MMIWG Hearing Dateshmoore@aptn.ca@hollymooreaptn
T.H.E. Journal, 1105 Media’s magazine about K-12 education technology, is doing just that though. The title, which scrapped its print edition in 2012, will debut its new print edition at a related 1105 trade show in late January. Despite marketing leading digital offerings, in a competitive landscape with six other print magazines, T.H.E. Journal’s sales team was short a tool that every other rival had, Allain says. The return of print is paying immediate dividends. The 38-page inaugural issue has a 50-50 ad edit ratio—”significantly higher” than it had been for digital-only editions, according to Christopher Piehler, the magazine’s editor-in-chief. Along with the print relaunch, circulation will double: 50,000 print issues will accompany the 50,000 digital editions currently being sent out. Frequency will be cut from monthly to 7x however, to more closely align with the segment’s active seasons, Allain says. Digital-to-print launches like Allrecipes, POLITICO Magazine and The Pitchfork Review are becoming increasingly common, but it’s rare when a brand that decided to abandon ink and paper returns to it. “When I talk to the connected educators who make up our audience, they say that their computer desktop is more crowded than their literal desktop. For these people, whose job is to grapple constantly with a barrage of emails, texts and tweets, reading something in print can be a way to relax and really focus,” Piehler says. “We did a survey that showed reader interest, but for me the most powerful motivation came when a member of my editorial board said to me, ‘You know, I hate to admit it, but I read the magazine more when it was in print.'”More on this topic 1105 Media to Publish Microsoft’s MSDN, TechNet Magazines Branding Push, Client Needs Spawn New 1105 Media Division 1105 Enterprise Computing Group Launches Marketing Services Division 1105 Media Hires Tech Exec as CEO Digital Editions: Are They About to Catch Fire? Hanley Wood, 1105 Media Start the Year Off with AcquisitionsJust In The Atlantic Names New Global Marketing Head | People on the Move Four More Execs Depart SourceMedia in Latest Restructuring Bonnier Corp. Terminates Editor-in-Chief for Ethics Breach BabyCenter Sold to Ziff Davis Parent J2 Media | News & Notes This Just In: Magazines Are Not TV Networks Editor & Publisher Magazine Sold to Digital Media ConsultantPowered by “When the decision was made to cease the publication in print, it was based on indicators that digital-only strategies were growing in popularity with advertisers,” says 1105’s COO, Henry Allain. “We discovered that may be true in some markets, but clearly not in the K-12 ed-tech space. This segment of the market continues to have a vibrant print offering…We needed to be back as part of the mix.” “In this market segment many agencies and marketers are committed to integrated buys,” he says. “We found ourselves at a disadvantage when we didn’t offer print as one component of the buy…It was a bit frustrating for the sales team to have to continually deal with the question: ‘Where is the print component of this proposal?'”
Citation: How does complex behavior spontaneously emerge in the brain? (2013, August 26) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-08-complex-behavior-spontaneously-emerge-brain.html A spatial representation of the background avalanche activity in a circular culture with a 2.5-mm radius and density of 300 neurons per mm. Only the top 1% of the most active connections is shown. Different colors correspond to different neuron communities, according to a community detection algorithm. Credit: Javier G. Orlandi, et al. ©2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited In a new study published in Nature Physics, a team of researchers from Spain has shown that emergence in neuronal networks can be explained as a noise-driven phenomenon that is controlled by the interplay between network topology and intrinsic neuronal dynamics. In this scenario, a randomly fired pulse propagates through the network and is amplified by noise focusing, which the researchers describe as an implosive concentration of spontaneous activity. “From the experimental point of view, we show that in neuronal cultures, the emergence early in the development of collective spontaneous activity is dominated by the presence of activity waves that initiate in specific regions of the culture, in a similar way as it happens in vivo,” lead author Javier G. Orlandi at the University of Barcelona told Phys.org. “And with the help of simulations, we also show that you don’t need any special mechanism to explain this behavior, just the right combination of network structure and dynamics. These waves emerge naturally from the noise focusing effect, in which individual firings propagate and concentrate in specific regions to later generate these activity waves.”The researchers arrived at this explanation by combining high-resolution calcium imaging experiments of rat cortical neurons with simulations. The experiments revealed that bursts of neuronal pulses are controlled by waves that originate at small areas called nucleation sites. Although previous research has hinted at the existence of such waves, this study is the first that provides sufficiently high resolution to measure the wave velocity for the first time. The random nature of the wave initiation from spontaneous neuronal firing also supports the idea that it is a noise-driven phenomenon, in which the waves are later amplified to become global bursts.The view of emergence in neural networks as a noise-driven phenomenon differs from the common view in which the bursts of neuronal pulses are controlled by specific leader neurons assisted by the network architecture. In the noise-driven explanation, the nucleation sites do not actively initiate the firing process, but collect and amplify the firing activity that originated elsewhere.As the researchers explain, understanding the full implications of noise focusing in the brain remains a question for future research.”The mechanism of noise focusing emerges naturally in any system with interconnected integrate-and-fire units (like neurons), so its effect should also be present in the brain,” Orlandi said. “If this effect is important in the brain, or by contrast, if the brain has other mechanisms to counter its effect, is still an open question. It could be that noise focusing is responsible for the generation of waves of activity during development, like in the retina, and that it helps the maturation of specific neuronal pathways.”In the future, the researchers plan to further investigate neuronal activity through more in-depth investigations.”We want to see what happens in more complex neuronal systems, like slices or electrode recordings from anaesthetized animals, and see if we find the same effect in there,” Orlandi said. “We know that activity waves are present in these systems, but we still need to see how these waves form exactly, if it is also due to noise focusing or due to something else. It would also be extremely interesting to check what role noise focusing plays in social networks, for example in rumor spreading.”In this analogy, the points of a rumor’s origins can be compared to the nucleation sites where waves originate, and the spreading of a rumor to the brain’s collective neuronal firing. More information: Javier G. Orlandi, et al. “Noise focusing and the emergence of coherent activity in neuronal cultures.” Nature Physics. DOI: 10.1038/NPHYS2686 Journal information: Nature Physics Coherence activity in neuronal cultures from noise focusing Explore further (Phys.org) —The idea of emergence, in which complex behavior spontaneously emerges out of simple interactions, exists in a wide variety of areas, such as economics, the Internet, and urban development. But perhaps the ultimate example of emergence is in the brain, where thousands of randomly firing neurons spontaneously reach a coherent state of collective, periodic firing that underlies all brain functions. Despite significant progress, the mechanisms responsible for the origin and maintenance of spontaneous neuronal activity are still poorly understood. © 2013 Phys.org. All rights reserved. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Aakashan is a fusion of Australian and Indian traditional aerial acrobatics arts. The show was developed and directed by Catherine Daniel an Australian physical theater practitioner in collaboration with Indian choreographer Vikram Mohan, Carly Sheppard, an indigenous Australian contemporary and tradition dancer and the Kalakar Trust.Aakashan was presented and performed by young artists who belong to traditional artist families having low- income backgrounds. The show’s daring aerial acrobatics feats performed include the aptly named gazelle split, half angel, mermaid, bow and arrow & sleeping beauty. All these elements require incredible stamina and endurance to perform. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Speaking on the occasion Sterre Sharma, founder Kalakar Trust said, ‘I am proud that the youngsters in this show showed the strength to succeed in spite of the challenges they have faced every day of their life.’Founded by 1992 by Sharma, The Kalakar Trust has grown to benefit more than 1200 families of mostly puppeteers, dancers, musicians, acrobats, and magicians. The funding for the Trust comes from the sale of Sharma’s paintings. The basic aim of the Trust is to keep the traditional art of these communities alive by providing education, health services, drinking water, income generation arts and community management.The Kalakar Trust is an NGO working for the up-liftment of underprivileged artists living in Delhi slums. The major project is in Katputli colony, West Delhi. The basic aim of the trust is to keep the traditional art of these communities alive by providing education, health services, drinking water, income generation arts and community management.